transparence et démocratie

Les politiques la promettent, les citoyens l’exigent, beaucoup d’internautes la revendiquent dans leurs rapports personnels. La transparence est devenue un idéal universel que l’on pare de toutes les vertus. Et, ces dernières années, de plus en plus de pays se sont dotés de lois en ce sens.
• De fait, la transparence permet souvent de limiter la corruption et d’améliorer les pratiques de l’Etat, comme le montre l’exemple de l’Inde.
• Mais elle ne règle pas tout, met en garde le juriste américain Lawrence Lessig, et peut même finir par saper la confiance dans la démocratie.

***********************

**Transparent, certes, mais digne de confiance ?

Il y aurait donc une sorte d’évidence à vouloir la transparence. Pouvoir à tout moment tout savoir, tout montrer, tout vérifier… Pourtant, cette notion est toute récente. Il y a vingt ans encore, on parlait plutôt d’honnêteté et de “sincérité” des comptes, plutôt que de transparence. Mais il y a eu depuis quantité de scandales politiques, de désastres techniques façon Tchernobyl, d’escroqueries financières… On veut donc maintenant avoir accès aux données. Et cela est facilité par les nouvelles technologies, Internet en tête. Il ne s’agit plus seulement des comptes de l’Etat et des élus, mais de toutes les informations – sur les entreprises, sur les communes, sur votre voisin. Et, comme le dit très bien un article de notre dossier, avec les réseaux sociaux, chacun désormais livre en temps réel photos et données sur lui-même. Bienvenue dans la génération transparente !Malgré cette évidence, il faut poser quelques questions. Le juriste Lawrence Lessig, pourtant grand défenseur de la liberté sur le Net, nous explique que la transparence fragilise plus la démocratie qu’elle ne la renforce. Car elle peut mener au soupçon généralisé et au rejet du politique dans son ensemble. Au fond, la transparence (revendiquée par de nombreux politiciens véreux), tout comme la fameuse “traçabilité”, se résume souvent à des cache-misère. Elle vient pallier quelque chose qui manque de plus en plus : la confiance – et son corollaire, la virtus romaine, c’est-à-dire le dévouement au bien commun. Pourtant, les relations interpersonnelles, la monnaie, l’économie, tout cela fonctionne d’abord grâce à la confiance, non à la transparence. Nous allons chez notre boucher parce que nous avons confiance en lui, notait jadis Adam Smith.A l’inverse, malheureusement, la supposée “transparence” ne résout pas tout. Car toute comptabilité est un exercice d’interprétation, qui ouvre le champ, si on le souhaite, à toutes les manipulations. Un exemple récent le montre : la Grèce, lors de son entrée dans la zone euro, a été certes transparente, mais elle n’était pas sincère ni digne de confiance.(Le Courrier international-25.02.2010.)   

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