Tisserand

*L’histoire du métier à tisser

metiertisser.jpg 

Un métier à tisser est une machine utilisée pour fabriquer du tissu. Ils peuvent être industriel comme dans l’industrie textile (tissus), ou manuel.

Si les progrès mécaniques ont permis de moderniser les moyens de production, la façon de procéder reste la même : deux séries de fils perpendiculaires sont tissées entre elles.

 Les premiers tissus connus datent de la fin du néolithique, ils ont été retrouvés en Turquie et en Palestine.

 Le métier à tisser le plus rudimentaire consiste en un cadre de bois : une série de fils (la chaîne) est tendue entre deux bâtons de bois fichés dans le sol. Avec une perche, un fil de chaîne sur deux est tiré afin de créer un espace vide (la foule) où un autre fil (la trame) passe perpendiculairement aux fils de chaîne puis les nappes de la chaîne sont inversées pour créer une autre foule où repasse le fil de trame.

Vers 3 000 avant J.C., les métiers ont les fils de trame tendus sur une barre transversale par des poids. [1]

metiertisser2.jpg 

Vers 1 400 avant J.C., les premiers métiers verticaux apparaissent, la chaîne est alors tendue entre deux barres horizontales. Ce type de métier est encore utilisé pour la tapisserie par exemple. [ Vers 1 000 avant J.C., les métiers horizontaux ont un cadre rigide et un bâton est attaché à certains fils de chaîne afin d’ouvrir la foule en le soulevant.

Ensuite le métier à tisser n’évolue plus jusqu’au Moyen Âge où des pédales sont utilisées pour soulever tour à tour un certain nombre de lisses différentes afin d’obtenir des motifs plus complexes. L’adjonction de la pédale est une invention chinoise. [1]

Les évolutions suivantes prendront des noms différents : métier à la tire, métier Jacquard, métier sans navette, métier à rapière, etc. [1]

 metiertisser3.jpg

Le moyen pour passer le fil de trame dans la foule est quant à lui resté le même pendant longtemps : une navette renfermant le fil de trame se glissait à la main dans l’ouverture, ce qui limitait de fait la largeur de l’ouvrage. Pour de grandes pièces, deux tisserands devaient se passer la navette. En 1733, un tisserand britannique John Kay met au point un système mécanique pour simplifer l’opération : la navette volante. Cette invention permit de passer de l’artisanat à l’industrie. [1]

Dès 1786, les machines à vapeur permettent la mise en place de métiers mécaniques rapides. [

 (source: wapedia)

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