Haro sur le PIB

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Haro sur le PIB ! Le Produit intérieur brut, c’est l’outil de référence pour mesurer la richesse d’un pays.Mais il néglige les inégalités, l’environnement. On a besoin d’autres indicateurs.

Entretien

Dominique Meda est aussi membre du Forum pour d’autres indicateurs de richesse (Fair). Il a été créé après que Nicolas Sarkozy a chargé une commission, présidée par Joseph Stiglitz, prix Nobel d’économie, de réfléchir à d’autres indicateurs de richesse. Cette commission rend son rapport aujourd’hui.(14.09.09.)Le Produit intérieur brut, c’est quoi ?

Le PIB, c’est l’addition de tous les biens et services produits par un pays. Biens et services marchands et, depuis 1976, services non marchands (produits par les administrations publiques). On utilise cet outil pour mesurer la richesse d’un pays.

Son développement date des années 1950. Cette idée que le progrès correspond, en gros, au volume de la production s’accordait bien avec la priorité donnée alors à la reconstruction. Et puis, il y avait cette idée que la production, l’échange de biens et services est encore la meilleure manière de tenir les individus ensemble : un garant de la paix sociale.

Pourquoi cet outil ne convient-il plus aujourd’hui ?

Trois grosses limites. Le PIB ne compte que la production issue du travail rémunéré. Le reste ne vaut rien : le temps passé avec les proches, les amis, le bénévolat, le loisir, le temps politique. Or ces activités contribuent aussi intensément à la cohésion de la société.

Par ailleurs, le PIB ne rend pas compte des inégalités, notamment des inégalités de consommation. Il s’appuie sur des moyennes. Enfin, le PIB mesure la richesse produite, mais il ne compte pas les dégâts commis sur l’environnement pour la produire. Par exemple : la déforestation de l’Amazonie. On détruit une forêt pour vendre du papier. La richesse produite par l’industrie papetière va augmenter le PIB. En revanche, on ne prendra pas en compte le fait que tous les services rendus par cette forêt ne pourront plus être rendus : sa participation à la biodiversité, le plaisir de s’y promener, la contribution de cette forêt à la qualité de l’air. A contrario, dépolluer, après une marée noire, est considéré comme une production de richesse !

Le rapport Stiglitz : une avancée ?

Oui, c’est très bien que l’on reconnaisse enfin qu’il faut trouver une alternative au PIB, ou le compléter. Donc revoir notre conception du progrès, basé sur le « toujours plus ».

Le progrès, c’est de permettre à la société de se développer en maintenant son capital naturel et sa cohésion sociale. Il faut de nouveaux indicateurs pour le mesurer.

Mais, pour cela, on ne peut pas seulement s’en remettre à un cénacle d’économistes, si brillants soient-ils. Or, la commission Stiglitz ne compte aucun représentant des syndicats, des associations. Elle est composée quasi exclusivement d’économistes et de deux femmes… ! Cela explique peut-être qu’elle a eu la tentation de vouloir tout monétariser.

Peut-on vraiment arriverà un indicateur parfait ?

Non ! Mais partons des indicateurs dont nous disposons (l’empreinte écologique, l’indicateur de santé sociale qui tient compte de l’accès à l’éducation, à la santé, des inégalités). Associons les citoyens pour faire l’inventaire de ce à quoi nous tenons. Présentons chaque année un rapport au Parlement sur l’état de notre société sur cette nouvelle base. On ne décrète pas ce qu’est une « bonne société », un projet de civilisation. On doit le décider tous ensemble.(Ouest-France, 14.09.09.)

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