Les Abbassides (750-1258)

Succédant au  califat omeyyade les Abbassides prirent le pouvoir à Damas. Abu al-Abbas Abdallah dit Al-Saffah (749/754),  fut proclamé calife dans la Grande Mosquée de Kufa. Les Abbassides déplacèrent  la capitale du califat  de Damas vers l’Irak, où, en 762, le second calife, Jaffar al-Mansour (754-775), fonda Madinat al-Salem (« la ville de la paix ») : Bagdad, près de la  capitale des Perses,

Les abbassides se considèrent plus légitimes pour  le califat en leur qualité de descendants d’Al-Abbas Ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566 – 662), l’un des oncles du prophète que la dynastie qu’il viennent de décimer : les Omeyyades, descendants d’Umayya,
 Tournés vers  l’Iran, les Abbassides compteront  de grands vizirs originaires de ce pays. Deux noms vont alors émerger et leur légende traverser les siècles jusqu’à nos jours.  Haroun Al-Rachid (786-809), contemporain de Charlemagne, et son fils Al-Mamûn (813-833),
Les Abbassides furent de grands traducteurs des œuvres grecques, notamment celles d’Aristote, Platon et Euclide. Les arts et la littérature, la  philosophie,  la médecine, les  mathématiques connurent un essor sans précédent.
Contrairement aux Omeyyades qui furent d’abord un groupe militaire fermé enraciné à la terre, les Abbassides sont des gens de la ville à l’image de Baghdad qu’ils bâtirent
 Le commerce était florissant, l’administration sera un  modèle dans tout le monde musulman.
Mais très vite l’Empire abbasside  va se fragmenter en plusieurs Etats autonomes à l’exemple de  l’Andalousie, où s’installa en 756 un descendant des Omeyyades, (voir notre prochain article). Le Maghreb central est géré par les Rostémides (une  dynastie qui a régné sur le royaume de Tahert (776-909) et affiche son indépendance vis-à-vis des abbassides), le Maghreb extrême par les Idrissides. En Ifriqiya, les Aghlabides…. l’Egypte s’émancipera  à son tour des abbassides et bientôt  les Fatimides, nouvelle dynastie califale chiite,  rivale des Abbassides viendront fouler la terre des pharaons.
Au Xe siècle, Al-Muktadir (908-932) est encore l’héritier des califes du IXe siècle, A sa mort son frère Al-Kahir (932-934), est alors choisi par les dignitaires..
C’est alors que se dégrade sans retour la situation politique du califat. Les gouverneurs de provinces n’envoient plus d’argent. Acculé,   le calife remet en 936 le gouvernement de l’Etat a son successeur,  Al Râdi, qui, lui-même le délègue  à un chef militaire, Ibn Raïk, avec le titre de Grand Emir (Amir al Umara). Cette situation « inédite » attise les convoitises des militaires qui s’entretuent  pour contrôler le gouvernement  qui n’est plus civil.
 Le calife n’intervient plus dans la vie politique qu’en favorisant les intrigues qui minent le pouvoir d’un grand émir au profit d’un concurrent.
Au fil des siècles, le pouvoir des califes s’affaiblit peu à peu, victime notamment des affrontements constants entre sunnites et chiites, mais aussi de nombreuses révoltes.
Mal conseillé, ne disposant d’aucune information réelle, Le dernier calife, Al-Musta’sim, croit pouvoir intimider les conquérants mongols en se présentant comme le maître de «tout le peuple qui prie Allah »… Dirigés par Houlagou Khan les Mongols prennent  Bagdad le 10 février 1258 et exécutèrent Al-Musta’sim.  C’est la fin des Abbassides.(El Moudjahid-)  M.KOURSI

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