Peut-on surfer sur Internet au travail ?

Utiliser Internet de son bureau à des fins personnelles est toléré, mais dans des proportions «raisonnables», selon la Cnil. Crédits photo: François Bouchon Le Figaro
Utiliser Internet de son bureau à des fins personnelles est toléré, mais dans des proportions «raisonnables», selon la Cnil.

 Un salarié qui avait consulté Internet à des fins personnelles pendant 41 heures, en un mois, a été licencié pour faute grave. Il avait pourtant effacé l’historique de ses navigations.

Peut-on surfer sur Internet au travail ? coeur- Où commence le respect de la vie privée au bureau ? Que peut-on surveiller et quels sont les droits des salariés comme des employeurs ? Autant de questions que se posent de plus en plus souvent les professionnels du droit, de l’audit et du conseil, ainsi que de nombreux chefs d’entreprise ou de salariés.

Boîte e-mail «personnelle» et «professionnelle»

Concernant la messagerie professionnelle du salarié, «tout message non identifié par le salarié comme personnel, est considéré comme relevant de la sphère professionnelle», prévient la Commission nationale de l’informatique et des libertés (Cnil). A priori, l’employeur ne doit pas intervenir dans la boîte e-mail des salariés, sauf en cas de problème grave et urgent, subordonnant la poursuite de l’activité. Dans ce cas, il a le droit d’accéder à la messagerie du salarié. Mais en tout état de cause, et sauf dans le cas d’une procédure judiciaire, «l’employeur ne doit pas consulter les messages de la boîte e-mail personnelle, ou tout courriel de ses employés comportant la mention «personnel» dans son corps ou objet du message», explique Alex Türk, président de la Cnil. Un usage abusif des messages identifiés comme personnels, peut, cependant, conduire au licenciement du salarié pour faute grave.

Une salariée a été licenciée en début d’année après avoir envoyé 156 courriels personnels en deux mois. «L’usage à des fins personnelles des outils mis à la disposition des salariés est une tolérance de l’employeur, explique le site avocat.fr. Cette tolérance a pour limite la désorganisation du travail.». «Si le temps passé à surfer sur Internet ou à envoyer des messages privés, réduit considérablement le temps consacré au travail, de façon à ce que l’organisation des missions confiées au salarié s’en trouve désorganisées, le licenciement sera justifié» ajoute le site spécialisé. En outre, la Cnil précise que «des exigences de sécurité, de prévention ou de contrôle de l’encombrement du réseau peuvent conduire les entreprises ou les administrations à mettre en place des outils de contrôle de messagerie». Ces outils peuvent mesurer la fréquence ou la taille des messages électroniques, analyser les pièces jointes, détecter les virus, ou encore installer des filtres anti-spam…

De l’usage d’Internet sur son lieu de travail

Utiliser Internet de son bureau, à des fins personnelles, est généralement admis et toléré, mais là encore dans des proportions qualifiées de «raisonnables» par la Cnil. Cette pratique n’en demeure pas moins soumise à une «utilisation quantifiable par l’entreprise», selon Eric Caprioli, avocat spécialisé en droit de la propriété intellectuelle. Elle ne doit en aucun cas faire obstacle au bon fonctionnement de l’entreprise. L’employeur peut mettre en place des dispositifs de filtrage de sites non autorisés. Il peut fixer l’interdiction de télécharger des logiciels, de se connecter à un forum ou encore de «tchater». Il peut également établir l’interdiction de se connecter à une boîte personnelle via internet à cause des risques de virus. Par ailleurs, l’utilisation abusive d’internet à des fins personnelles au bureau est passible d’un licenciement pour faute grave.

Un salarié qui avait surfé sur Internet à des fins personnelles pendant 41 heures, durant un mois, en a fait les frais. Le 18 mars dernier, il a été licencié pour faute grave. La Cour de cassation a évalué le caractère abusif du temps passé sur Internet par le salarié. En effet, «les relevés de connexion au réseau Internet à partir de ce poste font apparaître durant le mois de décembre 2004 des connexions très fréquentes, plusieurs fois par jour pour des durées parfois très longues (10 fois plus d’une heure, 4 fois plus de deux heures) et pour une durée totale de plus de 41 heures.» Et pourtant, l’employé avait effacé les historiques de navigation. Mais la Cour a retenue que «cet effacement, qui ne peut être le fruit d’une inadvertance, mais résulte nécessairement d’un acte volontaire [....] constitue une preuve suffisante de l’utilisation par le salarié à des fins personnelles du matériel informatique mis à sa disposition par l’employeur.» En tout état de cause, la Cour a jugé que «le salarié ne consacrait pas toute son activité à l’entreprise mais se livrait durant de très larges périodes à des activités personnelles et qu’il s’agit là d’un comportement fautif.» (Le Figaro-24.04.09.)

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*Surfer sur Internet favoriserait la productivité des salariés

Si de nombreuses entreprises ne voient pas d’un bon œil que leurs salariés surfent sur Internet à des fins privées, elles pourraient avoir tort. Une étude publiée le 2 avril par le professeur Brent Coker, du département « management et marketing » à l’université de Melbourne en Australie, met en lumière que « de courtes et discrètes pauses, comme un petit tour sur Internet, permettent à l’esprit de se reposer, donc de favoriser la concentration lors d’une journée de travail, et au final, d’accroître sa productivité ». Selon les résultats de cette étude, les salariés qui surfent sont environ 9% plus productifs que les autres. Mais, ces courtes pauses ne doivent pas dépasser une  » limite raisonnable « , fixé à 20% du temps de travail, nuance Brent Cocker.

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