Djanet, une tradition aux racines millénaires

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Les habitants de la ville de Djanet, dans la wilaya d’Illizi-Algérie- célèbrent la Sbeiba, une fête annuelle puisant son origine dans l’histoire ancienne des Touareg du Tassili des Ajjers. Une enveloppe de trois millions de DA a été allouée par le ministère de la Culture pour l’organisation de cette fête qui se tient depuis le premier jour de l’an de l’hégire (Moharrem), pour durer jusqu’à l’Achoura, à l’initiative de l’Office du parc national du Tassili (Opnt) et la commune de Djanet. La Sbeiba de Djanet permet aux tribus locales de se retrouver le jour de l’Achoura de chaque année pour célébrer un pacte de paix conclu par leurs aïeux, depuis des millénaires. Ce traité de paix entre les Oraren et les Tar’Orfit signifiait la fin de l’une des guerre fratricides les plus longues dans l’histoire des tribus ajjers. Tout comme à Tamanrasset, où toutes les tribus du Hoggar sont réunies autour de leur Aménokal, chef spirituel, pour célébrer la traditionnelle «Ziara», visite au mausolée de Moulay Abderrahmane, la Sbeiba de Djanet permet aux tribus locales de se retrouver le jour de l’Achoura pour célébrer ce pacte de paix. Cette manifestation qui regroupe les deux ksour qui dominent la ville de Djanet, se traduit par des joutes amicales entre leurs habitants et des danses exécutées sur un rythme émouvant des tambourins, tandis que des guerriers en grand apparat exhibent les étoffes sacrées qui rappellent leur origine tribale et leur unité face à l’ennemi. Dans chaque camp, on s’entraîne, on lustre les armes d’apparat, on prépare les costumes de guerre aux couleurs bigarrées, on espionne aussi l’adversaire et le jour de la Sbeiba, on rejoue le dernier acte où les guerriers seretrouvent face à face et sur fond de youyous des femmes, se toisent, se défient et se provoquent sous les sons du bendir.
Ensuite, les sages, au moment où la tension atteint son paroxysme, interviennent pour arrêter les parades guerrières des deux tribus et finissent, après de longues palabres, par reconduire le pacte de paix signé par leurs ancêtres. Une table ronde sur le patrimoine immatériel de la région d’Illizi prévue au centre culturel d’Ifri, la projection d’un court métrage sur la Sbeiba et des émissions radiophoniques sur la thématique du patrimoine immatériel du Tassili figurent également au programme de cette fête…( l’Expression
)..janvier 2009

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