Ibn Khaldoun

*Le père de la sociologie


L’histoire d’un peuple est-elle son miroir ? Je dis tout de suite oui,  comme l’a dit Abderrahmane Ibn Khaldoun (1332-1406 grégorien). En fait, ce monument de l’histoire universelle reste toujours éternel. C’est lui qui a posé dans le monde les premiers jalons de «l’histoire des peuples». A l’époque et avant lui, les historiens étaient «affiliés» aux idées et actes des rois, des puissants et autres gouvernants. Dans ses Proligomènes ou Moukadima, Abderrahmane Ibn Khaldoun a «balayé» les idées de ses contemporains et de ses prédécesseurs musulmans et même… chrétiens et juifs. Certes, en homme sincère et franc, il ne parle que des historiens musulmans et de leurs «idées saugrenues»… les «Occidentaux» qui l’ont surtout découvert XIXe siècle (et l’ont «décortiqué» aux XIXe et XXe siècles) ont reconnu que ce savant génial a jeté «les premiers principes de l’histoire scientifique» et a découvert une nouvelle science qui va s’appeler désormais «sociologie». En effet, ce que Ibn Khaldoun appelait «el omran» a été «la base» des recherches des premiers sociologues occidentaux.
Si Ibn Khaldoun a découvert «la Sociologie» en partant de «l’Histoire» (avec un grand S et un grand H) c’est grâce à sa… «liberté de savant». En effet, l’homme qui a  – toujours – occupé les postes de «Premier ministre» ou «premier cadi» (l’équivalent de président de la Cour suprême de nos temps) dans les Etats du Maghreb et de l’Andalousie (arabe) a découvert «sa liberté dans… une grotte ! Par une nuit d’été chaude et sans lune, son ami Lissan Eddine Ibn El Katib, à l’époque ministre d’Etat dans le gouvernement zianide (1236-1283 grégorien) le réveille à minuit et lui conseille de «fuir immédiatement, car le prince zianide a décidé de lui couper la tête» (voir Voyage d’Orient et d’Occident d’Ibn Khaldoun) (1).
Fuyant la mort, Ibn Khaldoun, qui était premier cadi chez les Zianides, ne prit que quelques «petits vêtements» et se sauva vers «l’Est» ( fuyant d’autres «ennemis» qui s’appelaient les «Mérinides» !).
Après mille «écueils et vicissitudes» par exemple, ces bandits lui ont pris tous ses vêtements et vivres, le laissant «nu comme un ver de terre». Heureusement que ses manuscrits ne les … intéressaient pas !), arrivé à Frenda, là, il a été bien accueilli par les «chouyoukh» de la «tribu» des Beni Fernan. Après quelques jours de repos bien mérités, Ibn Khaldoun sortit se promener… et le «hasard le conduisit vers cette grotte «merveilleuse» ! Il décida alors de s’y installer pour écrire en toute… Liberté (avec un L majuscule). Finis les postes politiques bien rémunérés, fini le «côtoiement» des rois ignorants et ingrats (2). Un grand savant de l’humanité est né dans la «Grotte des Beni …» (El Watan-16.08.2011.)

Note :

1)Voyage d’Orient et d’Occident d’Ibn Khaldoun, Editions Sindbad-Paris.
2) Op. cité

**consulter par ailleurs: Ibn Khaldoun Wikipédia

Statue d'Ibn Khaldoun sur la place de l'Indépendance à Tunis

*une biographie d’Ibn Khaldoun 


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